fluorination alter container appearance?
changes to plastic surfaces are negligible. In many
cases, there is no discernible visible change. With
heavy fluorination, plastic surfaces can become less
glossy and slightly mat. Some high gloss resins have
been developed that stay glossy after fluorination.
should my containers/items be packed
for shipping to you?
containers should be packed in a way that ensures
they stay clean, grease and oil free, and dry. Customers
use re-shippers, bulk boxes, tray packs and pallets
depending on what best suits their product. Most
customers utilize poly bag liners in carton and full
height shrink wrap on palletized containers. Larger
containers may be individually poly bagged for shipment
in a clean truck.
are DOT or UN regulations affecting permeation?
US Department of Transportation requirement for products
transported over US highways is that chemicals and
solvents lose less than 2% weight per year. This
serves to protect warehouse and shipping personnel
from excessive fume exposure and to protect the consumer
from underweight packaging. Note that for hazardous
materials the permissible weight loss is only 0.5%
per year! Fluorination can often boost HDPE container
performance enough to help you meet these targets.
Over 20,000 of our customers worldwide have been
able to maintain use of impact resistant HDPE packaging
and avoid switching to less desirable glass or metal
containers or to more expensive barrier resin or
barrier coated containers.
That the DOT lists a general procedure for testing
chemical compatibility and rate of permeation.
This may be helpful for your evaluations and may
be found at:
Appendix B.49 CFR Ch.
I, Pt. 173, Appendix B.
the Fluoro-Seal Process FDA compliant?
The Fluoro-Seal Process complies with FDA regulations
in accordance with
21CFR Ch. I, Pt. 177.1615 a, b, and c.
The DOT lists a general procedure for testing chemical
compatibility and rate of permeation. This may be
helpful for your evaluations and may be found at:
Appendix B.49 CFR Ch. I, Pt. 173, Appendix B.
have your FDA affairs group locate the most recent
edition of the CFR and provide you with advice and
guidelines in adhering to any and all regulations
that may apply to your particular application.
Fluoro-Seal treat containers that are
yes - but they must be pre-qualified to insure the
inks are compatible with fluorination. Fluoro-Seal
can work with your decorator to find inks that will
successfully undergo fluorination.
Fluoro-Seal treat containers that are
most cases, sleeve labels do not prevent containers
from being fluorinated. Some printed colors bleach
or the sleeve itself may wrinkle during the fluorination
process. If sleeve labels are to be used, FSI will
perform tests to pre-qualify the sleeve before production
orders are processed to assure compatibility of your
specific container and a specific printed sleeve.
Fluoro-Seal treat containers that have
yes - but they must be pre-qualified to insure they
are compatible with fluorination. Plastic in-mold
labels work best with fluorination.
Fluoro-Seal treat containers that have
labels often present unacceptable technical problems.
If labels are a consideration in your container system,
it is essential that you contact FSI to arrange
test fluorination of samples to insure compatibility
and avoid costly mistakes and delays.
treatment interfere with adhesive labels
report few problems in applying labels to fluorinated
containers. Fluoro-Seal recommends that the label and
adhesion be part of the compatibility testing done
to qualify the package before going into production.
pigmented bottles be fluorinated?
has successfully fluorinated every color imaginable,
including pearlescent pigments. With some colors
there may be slight bleaching and some pigments require
higher levels of treatment to attain comparable results
with unpigmented bottles.
Product testing is strongly recommended before
beginning production to ensure the treatment level
specified will meet your requirements.
most common color for fluorinated bottles is white.
Black, brown, red and yellow bottles are also routinely
treated, but the number of customers and volumes
optimum barrier is always obtained with natural unpigmented
resin. With some pigmented bottles, the fluorination
level may have to be increased to match the barrier
performance attained with an all natural resin container
and meet application requirements.
testing is always advised and serves as your principle
guide to satisfactory performance.
use of an unpigmented resin is not possible, customers
with very challenging packaging applications have
chosen to switch to a dual layer bottle with a natural
inside layer and trade dress color outer layer. This
allows creation of higher barriers than that possible
with a pigmented bottle.
It is usually found that monolayer pigmented bottles will prove satisfactory
for routine applications.
there any other benefits from fluorination
for packaging and containers?
fluorination, as practiced by Fluoro-Seal, also provides
other beneficial surface modification effects. We
have a growing customer base who fluorinate polyethylene
containers in order to boost adhesion of inks, coatings
and structural adhesives.
proper adhesive selection, it is possible to achieve
structural bonds, which in T-peel and lap-joint testing,
exceed the strength of the base polyethylene.
flame, arc and corona treatments, which are well
known to fade with time, there is no known life time
limit for surface fluorination. This enables storage
of treated containers with the surety that when they
are eventually used, their surface modification will
still be effective.
bottles yellow after fluorination?
is a problem experienced in the plastics industry
from time to time. It can usually be traced to antioxidants
and possibly the presence of other compounds in the
formulation or storage environment. Yellowing in
the case of fluorinated containers can be experienced
although this happens very rarely In polyolefins
such as HDPE, LDPE and PP. The cause is usually quinone
formulation by the antioxidant package. Some antioxidants
are more prone to this than others.
that resin manufacturers and suppliers can and have
switched antioxidant packages without notifying customers.
In fact the antioxidant is typically not even specified
in most resin contracts. For optimum fluorination
results this is a detail which needs attention.
more specific information on contaminating factors
that can cause yellowing bottles, please contact
Fluoro-Seal's technical department in Houston.
antioxidants, particularly BHT and Irgonox® 1076,
are most prone to this. Antioxidants are incorporated
into the plastic by the resin manufacturer and thus
can be controlled by selection of proper resin type
and by contract specifications on antioxidant type
and amount. Old resin grades that have been on the
market for years and years are usually the ones still
using BHT or 1076. Newer grades are turning away from
these to 1010, 1330 or 1010 with phosphite 168. The
latter give reduced color problems. Note that resin
manufacturers and suppliers can and have switched antioxidant
packages without notifying customers. In fact the antioxidant
is typically not even specified in most resin contracts.
For optimum fluorination results this needs attention.
are alternate contamination pathways into the resin.
The most common is regrind addition. Very frequently
plant regrind will be collected from many runs and
admixed into the virgin resin at a particular few
machines. These runs get a sampling of every antioxidant
being run in the plant that week. Even though the
particular virgin resin may contain no BHT or 1076,
it can be introduced through regrind. It is for this
reason that we always recommend that regrind be buried
into an inner layer using a machine with a three
layer dye. Unfortunately this is not always possible,
in which case regrind separation is second best,
i.e. to only use regrind off the present production,
not plant wide regrind. Phenolic antioxidants can
also migrate into parts from other sources. Cardboard
boxes or box liners can contain phenolic antioxidants
and these have been known to transfer to the surfaces
of pellets or containers through direct contact and
even diffusion through air. Discoloration effects
usually show up most severely in white pigmented
brings another factor into the picture and that is
titanium dioxide which in untreated form is very
reactive with antioxidants. Under proper conditions,
this pigment can chemically interact with antioxidants
and give rise to yellowing or even browning. Numerous
sporadic factors have been known to trigger the reaction.
Nitrous oxide from fork lift truck exhaust, amine
type antistats, contaminants found in some stearate
are some of the more common factors.
counteract pigment/antioxidant reactions, titanium
dioxide pigment is offered in several grades. For
purposes of this discussion the most important factor
is degree of coating over titanium diode pigment
particles. Pigment producers have developed coatings
of aluminum oxide, silicon dioxide or silane, alone
or in combination, which reduce reactions of titanium
dioxide with antioxidants. The tradeoff is that the
coatings reduce coverage to some degree and require
compensation by addition of more pigment to achieve
a particular white density. This increases color
cost for a given product.